Overview of futures and options trading-A 360 degree view | Motilal Oswal

Overview of futures and options trading

Financial instruments such as futures and options are categorised as stock derivatives on the stock market. Options on futures are a kind of contract that is made between two parties and gives them the right to trade a stock or index at a predetermined price or level, at a certain time in the future. By specifying the price of the contract in advance, these two derivatives provide the investor with protection from potential changes in the stock market. On the other hand, the actual transaction involving futures and options is frequently substantially more involved and takes place at a much faster pace.

Understanding how futures and options operate before investing in them is always a smart idea, even though many people trade futures and options via a trader. 

Distinction Between Futures and Options Trading

Even though these twin stock derivatives share some similarities, there are also significant differences between them in critical respects. Both draw their value from something referred to as the underlying asset, which might be commodities, stocks, stock market indexes, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), or any other type of investment. Both indicate an upcoming financial exchange.

Here are a few important distinctions between the two:

  • Date of Trade: A futures holder is required to trade the securities on the specified date. While there are differences, you may exercise various choices at any moment until the expiry date. There are various distinctions between exercising options on indices and options on equities, as well as differing restrictions in different marketplaces. In India, for example, an index option may only be executed on the expiry day, but a stock option can be exercised at any time until the expiration date.
  • Right vs Obligation: Futures contracts represent a commitment to the trade that must be fulfilled by the specified date. On the other hand, options allow the buyer the right but not the duty to execute the contract.
  • Advance payments: When entering into a futures contract, there are no upfront expenses. You only pay when you square off the futures contract on the designated date. However, in order to trade futures contracts, you will need to post a "margin," which is equal to a percentage of the total value of the trade. As a result, "leverage" raises your earnings and losses.

Who Should Engage in Futures And Options Trading?

Futures and options trading requires an awareness of the subtleties of the stock market as well as a dedication to market tracking. There is also a significant amount of supposition. As a result, it is most often used by hedgers or speculators.

  • Speculators: There is a substantial element of speculation in derivatives trading since you are committing to trade at a set price. Unlike hedgers, who want a steady price, speculators often wager against the long odds. They will research the market and news events that are likely to have an influence on trade and make an informed bet on the price. A speculator would often attempt to acquire at a low price in the near term while betting on larger long-term gains.
  • Hedgers: Their primary aim is to protect themselves from potential price volatility. The majority of hedgers are found in the commodities market, where prices may vary rapidly. In such instances, futures and options trading often delivers much-needed price stability. Hedgers achieve guaranteed profits on the underlying asset by hedging their bets in a volatile market. However, if the price rises in the meanwhile, they may lose profit. Similarly, when purchasing the item, they will pay a predetermined amount regardless of its market worth.

Considerations Before Beginning Futures and Options Trading

Derivative trading requires an understanding of market action. Therefore, even if you trade via a broker, there are specific considerations to make.

  • Maintaining your risk tolerance: Your risk appetite is the amount of risk you are prepared to accept to achieve your goals. The primary purpose of trading derivatives is to minimise risk by setting the price in advance. In reality, a trader will constantly aim to find a price that will provide good profits. However, one of the financial maxims applies here as well: the greater the profit, the greater the risk. In other words, consider the level of risk you are ready to accept before committing to any price.
  • Don't get taken in by the leverage: Futures and options assets are highly leveraged, with futures often being more difficult to sell than options. You are more likely to hear about the future profit you can make by fixing a favourable price. What you're less likely to hear is that margins may act in both directions. You may be obliged to sell at a lower price or acquire at a higher price than the market. In other words, your chances of making a profit are theoretically the same as your chances of making a loss. While options may seem to be the safest alternative, as previously indicated, you are significantly more likely to postpone the transaction and lose the premium value, resulting in a net loss.
  • Establishing a stop-loss and take-profit level: Managing their transaction through the use of popular trading tools such as stop-loss and take-profit levels is common practice among experienced traders. The maximum amount of money that can be lost is referred to as a stop-loss, while the maximum profit that you are willing to accept is referred to as a take-profit. A take-profit point enables you to determine a price at which the stock can stabilise before continuing its downward trend. A trader operates between these two price levels as their base of operations.

Wrapping Up

Futures and options are frequently considered the more mysterious cousins of equity trading. These are fast-moving deals with daily margin fluctuations. Unlike stock, which draws long-term investors, futures and options are designed for speculators seeking immediate profits. They allow you to protect yourself from a volatile market while gradually increasing your gains if appropriately managed.

Trading futures and options are not rocket science, but it does need some knowledge before you get started. It may be an excellent instrument for hedging your bets and protecting you from market volatility. Alternatively, as a speculator, it may be a means to profit from volatility, although that strategy comes with its own set of significant dangers.

 

Related Articles: Can the commodity markets provide cues for equity trading | Beginners Guide to Agri Commodity Trading | 5 Successful Commodity Trading Strategies | Role of Commodity Markets In India 

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