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What is a Forward Contract

10 Jul 2023

In the dynamic and ever-evolving Indian stock market, various financial instruments are utilised by investors and businesses to manage risks, hedge against price fluctuations, and secure future transactions. One such instrument is a forward contract. A forward contract is a financial agreement between two parties to buy or sell a specific stock at a predetermined price (known as the forward price) on a specified future date.

Forward contracts play a significant role in the Indian stock market, enabling participants to protect themselves from price volatility and uncertainties. Let's explore the key aspects of forward contracts.

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What are the Features of a Forward Contract?

  • Customisation and Flexibility: 

Forward contracts are highly customisable, allowing parties to negotiate the specific stock, quantity, delivery date, and price according to their needs.

  • Agreement and Settlement: 

A forward contract is a legally binding agreement specifying the shares' quantity, price, and settlement date. On the settlement date, the buyer must purchase the agreed-upon shares from the seller at the predetermined price.

  • Hedging and Risk Management: 

Forward contracts help participants hedge against price fluctuations, enabling them to protect themselves from adverse stock price movements and mitigate market volatility.

  • No Exchange Trading: 

Unlike futures contracts, forward contracts are privately negotiated between the buyer and seller, offering more flexibility in contract terms but also exposing participants to counterparty risk.

How do Forward Contracts Work?

Suppose an investor expects the price of a particular stock to increase over the next six months. However, they want to lock in the current price to ensure maximum gains. The investor enters into a forward contract with a seller, agreeing to buy a specific number of shares at a predetermined price after six months.

If the stock price exceeds the forward price, the investor gains from the difference. Conversely, if the stock price falls below the agreed forward price, the investor suffers a loss. Forward contracts enable investors to secure the purchase price and potentially profit from favourable market movements.

What is the Importance of Forward Contracts?

Forward contracts greatly enhance the trading experience in the following ways:

  • Price Certainty and Planning: 

Forward contracts provide participants with price certainty for future stock transactions. This allows investors and businesses to plan and budget effectively, as they know the exact price at which they will buy or sell the stock on the settlement date.

  • Risk Mitigation: 

Forward contracts enable investors and businesses to hedge against potential losses resulting from adverse price movements. By locking in the purchase or sale price, participants can mitigate their exposure to market volatility and uncertainties.

  • Portfolio Diversification: 

Forward contracts provide investors with opportunities to diversify their portfolios beyond traditional stock investments. By entering into forward contracts on different stocks, investors can gain exposure to a wider range of assets and potentially enhance their overall portfolio performance.

  • Strategic Trading: 

Forward contracts allow traders to adopt specific trading strategies based on their market outlook and expectations. Traders can take advantage of anticipated price movements by entering into forward contracts, potentially generating profits from price discrepancies.

Limitations and Risks Associated with Forward Contracts:

While forward contracts offer advantages, there are limitations and risks associated with it too:

  • Counterparty Risk: 

Forward contracts are subject to counterparty risk. If one party fails to fulfil its obligations, the other party may face financial losses. Participants should assess the creditworthiness and reliability of their counterparties.

  • Lack of Liquidity: 

Forward contracts are typically less liquid compared to exchange-traded derivatives. Exiting or transferring a forward contract before the settlement date can be challenging, limiting participants' ability to adjust their positions.

  • Price Volatility: 

Forward contracts do not provide protection against adverse price movements. If the market price of the underlying stock experiences significant fluctuations, one party may gain an advantage over the other, leading to potential losses.


Forward contracts play a crucial role, allowing participants to manage risks, hedge against price fluctuations, and secure future transactions. By providing price certainty and risk mitigation, forward contracts enable investors and businesses to navigate the complexities of the stock market more effectively. However, it is essential for participants to be aware of the associated limitations and risks and to make informed decisions when entering into forward contracts.


Related Articles: Can the commodity markets provide cues for equity trading | Beginners Guide to Agri Commodity Trading | 5 Successful Commodity Trading Strategies | Role of Commodity Markets In India 


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