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What are over the counter options

26 Jun 2023


The Counter (OTC) options play a crucial role in the financial markets, providing investors with flexibility and customization. Unlike exchange-traded options, OTC options are not traded on formal exchanges but are privately negotiated between parties. Let's explore the world of OTC options and its various crucial aspects.

How do OTC options work?

OTC options are contracts that give the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset at a predetermined price (strike price) within a specified time frame. These contracts are negotiated privately between two parties, providing more flexibility regarding contract terms and customization. Market makers play a crucial role in OTC options by providing liquidity and facilitating trades between buyers and sellers.

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What are the advantages of OTC options?

Here are some of the prominent advantages of OTC options - 

  • Flexibility: OTC options offer greater flexibility in contract terms, allowing investors to customise them to meet specific needs. This flexibility includes selecting the underlying asset, strike price, expiration date, and contract size.
  • Cost savings: OTC options can potentially result in cost savings, as there are no exchange fees or transaction costs associated with trading on formal exchanges. This can be particularly advantageous for investors engaging in large-volume or frequent trading activities.
  • A wider range of underlying assets and strategies: OTC options provide access to a broader range of underlying assets beyond stocks, including commodities, currencies, and interest rates. 

What are the risks and considerations with OTC options?

Here are all the risks and considerations you must keep in mind while using OTC options -

  • Lack of standardized regulations and transparency: OTC options are not subject to the same level of regulation and oversight as exchange-traded options. This lack of standardization can result in varying contract terms and pricing methodologies.
  • Counterparty risk: OTC options are subject to counterparty risk, which refers to the risk that the other party may default on their obligations. 
  • Potential liquidity issues and limited market depth: OTC options generally have less liquidity compared to exchange-traded options, making it challenging to enter or exit positions at desired prices. Limited market depth can also result in wider bid-ask spreads, potentially impacting trading costs.

What are the common types of OTC options?

Here are the common types of OTC options -

  • Vanilla options: These are the most common type of OTC options and include call options and put options. Put options provide the right to sell the underlying asset while, call options provide the holder with the right to purchase the underlying asset.
  • Exotic options: Exotic options are more complex and come with additional features and conditions. Barrier options have specific price barriers that, when breached, activate or deactivate the option. Binary options have a fixed payout determined at expiration, depending on whether the underlying asset's price meets a predetermined condition. Asian options have a payoff based on the average price of the underlying asset over a specific period.

How does the OTC options trading process work?

The trading process for OTC options involves brokers and dealers who facilitate transactions between buyers and sellers. Brokers act as intermediaries, connecting counterparties and executing trades, while dealers may take on the role of market makers, providing liquidity and quoting bid and ask prices. Pricing for OTC options is determined through negotiation between the parties, considering factors such as the underlying asset's price, volatility, and time for expiration.

What are the differences between OTC options and exchange-traded options?

OTC options are privately negotiated contracts, offering more flexibility in contract customization. In contrast, exchange-traded options follow standardized contract specifications and are traded on formal exchanges. OTC options may provide cost savings in terms of fees, but they also come with additional risks, such as counterparty risk and limited liquidity compared to exchange-traded options.


OTC options offer investors unique advantages, like flexibility and access to a broader range of underlying assets. However, they also come with several risks. Understanding the intricacies of OTC options is crucial before engaging in trading activities. As with any investment, investors should conduct thorough research, seek professional advice, and carefully assess their risk tolerance when considering OTC options.


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