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What Are The Differences Between FPI and FII


In emerging economies, Foreign Portfolio Investment (FPI) and Foreign Institutional Investment (FII) are two terms used frequently. These terms are used in the context of international investments in the financial markets of a country.

Traders and investors often track the FII and FPI inflows to tap the opportunities and predict stock price movements. Though both are foreign investments, they differ in their structure, scope, and regulatory aspects.

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What is the difference between FPI and FII? 

The key difference between FPI and FII is their regulatory framework. FPI is subject to a less stringent registration process and regulatory oversight. There are lesser entry and exit barriers for FPI investors. This allows for more flexibility in the capital flows of FPI. Hence, they can explore and invest in multiple markets.

FIIs, although being a subset of FPI, undergo a rigorous registration process and are scrutinized more in terms of regulations. This is because they usually invest with a long-term perspective and can have a more significant impact on the markets. Regulators often closely monitor FIIs to ensure compliance with local rules and regulations. This helps prevent any potential market manipulation, hindrance, or threat to domestic industries.

What is Foreign Portfolio Investment (FPI)?

FPI refers to investments made by foreign individuals, institutional investors, or funds in financial instruments. These instruments include stocks, bonds, mutual funds, government securities, and others. FPI investors do not actively participate in the management or decision-making of the companies they invest in. They are considered passive investors, seeking opportunities for diversification and potentially higher returns in different markets.

The investments are made in the secondary market through stock exchanges with short-term or long-term horizons. However, FPI is subject to higher volatility due to the speculative nature of some investments and the ease of capital movements.

What is Foreign Institutional Investment (FII)?

FII, on the other hand, is a subcategory of FPI. It refers to investments made by foreign institutional investors as mutual funds, pension funds, insurance companies, and hedge funds. These institutional investors pool money from multiple sources for investments.

FIIs play a more active role in the markets compared to individual FPI investors. They may engage in research, analysis, and due diligence to make informed investment decisions. FIIs often take significant positions in companies. They may even seek to influence management decisions, especially where they hold substantial stakes.


FPI and FII differ in their nature, scope, and regulatory aspects. FPI involves passive investments by individuals and institutions seeking diversification. FII entails more active involvement by institutional investors with the potential to influence market dynamics. Understanding these differences is crucial for policymakers and investors alike in fostering a stable and sustainable investment environment.


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